Selected Readings 阅读推荐


by Ali Hechmi Raddaoui

The author takes quantity and quality as indices of fluent oral discourse. These two dimensions subsume two groups of parameters, respectively (1)speech rate, (2) pause rate, and (3) pause position for quantity, and (1) lexical accuracy, (2) richness, (3) variation, (4) economy, (5) metaphoricity, and (6) complexity for quality.   


Quantity of speech is a physical correlate of fluency amenable to quantification within a time limit. Specifically, it represents a direct reference to word density in a given stretch of discourse. This density is a function of at least three factors with direct bearing on a tally of density. One of these factors is ... 'the ability to attend to form without using conscious rules' (spontaneity). ... In order to speak with ease, one has to have at one’s disposal quantities of ideas, memories, and chains of reasoning already experienced inside oneself...

Lexis-wise , there are cerrain qualities of words that can,enve on first blush, be used to discriminate   between two pieces of discourse that are otherwise equally acceptable...

Lexical richness refers to the amount of vocabulary gained by the learner or speaker in one way or another. Indirect evidence of the importance of vocabulary size comes from recent studies by Laufer (1992) suggesting that learners in the process of text interpretation rely “on word meaning first, then on their knowledge of the subject matter and least of all on syntax”......Comprehension of a text at an acceptable level, as a cognitive activity, requires from the learner at least a passive knowledge of the greatest majority of vocabulary tokens. Passive knowledge would mean that the learner is able to recognize the lexemes in question, and assign them proper meaning in the text...Where the learner is called upon to not only to 'know' vocabulary items, but also to use them, is in oral (and written) production. Correct use of these items in actual speech situations is a cut above mere understanding or recognition. It means that the items are not only part of the lexical repertoire of a learner, but that they can be activated at will, or perhaps even better, spontaneously. Active knowledge of a bulky lexical repertoire has uncontested influence on a speaker's oral production, which will be conspicuously absent from the performance of a speaker with rudimentary vocabulary. This difference will be most salient in at least two respects: (i) lexical variation, and (ii) lexical economy.  

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How my Son’s Black Belt Reveals the Biggest Scientific Error in Our Culture Today

by Dr. Steven C. Hayes

Dr. Hayes is the founder of the relational frame theory (RFT) and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) which introduced a revolutionary new perspective into contemporary psychology. His own experience of walking his son from frustration of comparative kinesthetic weakness to attainment of his black belt in martial arts reveals a miracle which endorse the belief that the higher you expect, the greater potential you will release. His reflections on this great experience raises a impinging question for educators and parents to think over...


My wife and I began to realize something was wrong in early pre-school. Stevie could not do what other kids could do. He couldn’t throw, or catch, or kick, or climb. His hands got tired in minutes if he tried to draw; he could not hold a knife or fork. In pre-school, no one would pick him for team games at recess – kids groaned when he eventually was.

When my son later joined the “Black Belt club” we smiled and were supportive, but words echoed silently inside our heads like “genetic” and “never.” '

Now, years later, he’s done those push-ups, made those runs, and passed that months long set of qualifying exams. Now, years later, his speed, kicking, and punching strength is almost frightening. And as of that fine day called yesterday, our sweet little boy grown up has a Black Belt in Mixed Martial Arts.

... Since 1931 when it was first proven in physics, we’ve known you cannot properly predict the trajectory of an individual on the basis of averages and variations within groups of individuals. It’s mathematically illegitimate, except under a few extraordinary circumstances that apply to no living things (indeed they apply to a very small list of inanimate things, like a few noble gases).

... the vast majority of psychological scientific methods that give us such concepts: psychometrics, randomized trials, mediation, standardized testing.

All misguided.

Human development is idiographic first and nomothetic second. Humans are complex evolving networks, and no one thing makes sense except in context over time compared to within person variation. Yes, your genome matters, but it plays out individually, in context, and interacting with epigenetics, developmental history, environment, behavior, and culture.

It does us little good to simplify this complexity with concepts like “weak” or “hypotonia” — never mind “mentally ill,” “unintelligent,” and so on, and on, and on, until you get tired of the clown suits we force ourselves and others to live inside.

People are individuals, not averages.

For the full text, please visit Dr. Hayes's blog

The Ten Understated Qualities of Beauty

Reflections on our perception of beauty

by Dr. Sherrie Campbell

Dr. Sherrie Campbell listed ten understated qualities of beauty,which are elegance, kindness, composure, confidence, courage, deliberateness, intelligence, humbleness, honesty, and love. Her elaboration on the qualities started with a claim "to be beautiful inside and out, you must possess more than a pretty shell" is well worth pondering by many of us.

To be elegant is to be strong and assured in who you are, and to move gently within that energy.

Being kind may be perceived as weakness or vulnerability by others, but you know that kindness is one of your strongest influences. If you can’t say something nice, you have the control to remain quiet. There is no other human quality that will get you further in life than kindness.

Composure is the beauty of self-control. Life is always going to bring its challenges. Without a sense of composure, it is easy to allow conflict-situations and relationships to unnerve you, but when you have composure, you understand the concept of "less equals more".

The less you react, defend, explain, become fearful or controlling, the more command you have over a situation. Having composure allows you to stand tall with grace in the face of loss or challenge, and also not to be overly boastful when it comes to your success. Composure allows you maintain a certain stillness in the face of life’s changes.

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